TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism:
Volume 4 (1999)

TC articles and reviews that contain Hebrew, Greek, or other languages that use non-Roman scripts use dynamic (embedded) fonts. For more details about dynamic fonts, see TC Notes 3. Versions of the articles that use transliterated characters are also available, as are text-only versions (i.e., no Web formatting). TC uses a standard transliteration scheme in the regular HTML and text versions of all its articles. Words that are transliterated in the text are enclosed in tags that indicate the language of the words, for example, <heb> (Hebrew), <arc> (Aramaic), <grc> (Greek), and <syr> (Syriac). Click here to see a more complete list of abbreviations.

Editorials and General Information for Readers

TC 4 does not contain any editorials.


David Marcus, "Aramaic Mnemonics in Codex Leningradensis"

Abstract: This article outlines the nature and extent of the Aramaic mnemonics which occur in some Masorah magna notes in Codex Leningradensis. The various problems involved in the interpretation of these mnemonics are discussed, and a practical suggestion is offered concerning how these mnemonics may be useful for modern scholars. A complete list of the Aramaic mnemonics--along with translations, references to the biblical text, and notes--is given in the Appendix.

Review Articles

George Howard, "A Response to William L. Petersen's Review of Hebrew Gospel of Matthew"

Abstract: William L. Petersen's review article in TC 3 (1998) offers a sharp critique of George Howard's Hebrew Gospel of Matthew. Howard responds by reaffirming certain aspects of his argument and by pointing out numerous instances in which he believes Petersen has misunderstood or misrepresented his case.


One of the goals of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism is to provide informative and timely reviews of books in the field of biblical textual criticism. Anyone who would like to suggest a book for review or who would like to volunteer to be a reviewer may contact the TC book review editor, Leonard Greenspoon ( or the general editor, James R. Adair (

M. P. Weitzman, The Syriac Version of the Old Testament: An Introduction (Jerome Lund, reviewer)

Eberhard W. Güting and David L. Mealand, Asyndeton in Paul: A Text-critical and Statistical Inquiry into Pauline Style (D. C. Parker, reviewer)

Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett, eds., The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts (D. C. Parker, reviewer)